Department of Environment and Forest

GOVERNMENT OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH
GOVERNMENT OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Pasighat Forest Division


Forest Types: The forests under the working plan area are semi-evergreen in nature and comprises large number of tree species which occur in varying proportions at various localities. The area is located in a zone of high rainfall, the dry season being short and the average humidity is relatively high. The mean annual temperature is also high averaging around 24 - 26°C. The main feature of these forests is the heterogenous mixture of species, a clear description of which is difficult. Structurally these forests can not be clearly differentiated into distinct stories. However at places especially on hills two stories can be identified depending upon species composition. In general the top storey in rather open and composed of a mixture of evergreen, semi-evergreen and deciduous species. Pure patches of bamboos are also common and are scattered all over the forest area. These forest can be grouped in the sub-Group - 2B 'Northern Tropical Semi-evergreen Forests' of Champion and Seth's revised classification of Forest Types of India. Further these forest can be grouped in following Forest Types.

i) 2B/Cla :        Assam Alluvial Plains Semi-Evergreen Forests.
ii) 2B/C1/1S1 :        Sub-Himalayan High Alluvial Semi-Evergreen Forests.
iii) 3/lS2(b) :        Eastern Hollock Forest.
iv) 2B/2S1 :        Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

Sl.No Name of R.F Total Area as per Notification
1 Gutin 11,218.0 ha
2 Poba 10007.6 ha
3 Pasighat 4596.0 ha
4 Pasighat Station 159.2 ha
5 Gali 1638.4 ha
6 Remi 1300.0 ha
7 Mebo 1300.0 ha

The forests are composed of a large number of evergreen as well as deciduous species like Hollock (Terminalia Myriocarpa) Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Amari (amoora wallichii), Tita sopa (Michelia champaca), Gonsoroi (Cinnamomum ceciodaphnae), Makrisal (Schima wallichi), Bogipoma (Chikrasia tablaris), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora), Hillika (Terminalia chebula), Dhum (Canarium resiniferum), Bohera (Terminalia chebula), Dorpat (Allanthus grandes), Simul (Bombax ceiba), Hinguri (Castanopsis indica), Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Urium (Bischofia javanica), Moj (Albizia lucida), Seleng (Sapium baccatum), Paroli (Stereospermum chelonoides), Udal (sterculia villosa), Siris (Albizia procera), Sam(Artocarpus chaplasa), Bondernima(Dysoxylum binectiferum), Sopa (Magnolia spp.), Pichola (Kydia calycina), Thekera (Garcinia spp.), Outenga (Dillenia indica), etc. In the semi-Evergreen forests the proportion of the evergreen species are more than that of the decidous species due chiefly to the higher rainfall in the tract. The middle storey in these forests mainly composed evergreen species like Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Hinguri (Castanopsis indica), Urium (Bischofia javanica), Banderdima(Dysoxylum binectiferum), Seleng (Sapium baccatum), etc. with a little mixture of deciduous species like paroli Paroli (Stereospermum chelonoides), Pichola (Kydia calycina), Moj (Albizia lucida), and Outenga (Dillenia indica), etc.

General description of the forest types: As mentioned in above para the Forests found in the working plan area are diverse and consists of a mixture of large number of tree species. However the forests are aptly grouped in following sub-type depending upon species composition and similarity of important characteristics and each sub-grouped is discussed in detail one by one.

I. Assam alluvial plans semi-evergreen forest - 2B/C1 (a): This forest subtype is generally found in higher elevation in the foothills of Shiwalik and outer Himalayas and in major parts of Gutin and Mebo RFs. The forest is more or less having uniform species composition. The trees are tall, elegant and mixture of evergreen and deciduous species with dominance of evergreen species. Middle and lower storeys consists of mainly evergreen spe­cies with dense undergrowth. The ground cover is quite thick and diverse. The floristic composition is given below:

Top storey: Hollock (Terminalia Myriocarpa) Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Amari (amoora wallichii),Borpat(Ailanthus grandis), Gonsoroi (Cinnamomum ceciodaphnae), Sopa (Magnolia spp.)Bogipoma (Chikrasia tablaris), Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum), Bohera (Terminalia belerica), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora), Hillika (Terminalia chebula), Simul (Bombax ceiba),Udal (Sterculia villosa), etc.
Middle storey: Hinguri (Castanopsis indica), Urium (Bischofia javanica),Moj (Albizia lucida), Jamuk (Syzygium cumunii), Banderdima (Dysoxylum binectiferum), Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Outenga (Dillenia indica), Pichola (Kydia calycina), etc.
Lowers sorey: Boramthuri (Talauma hodgsonii), Selling (Sepium baccatum), Poreng (Olea dioica), Morhal (Vatica lancafolia).
Ground cover: Tita tenga (citrus spp.), Kaupat (Phrynium imbricatum), Kologoch (Musa spp.), Bonposola (Sarauja panduana), Bhat (clerodendron infortunatum), Bihlongoni (Pteris guadrisurita), Jeng (Calamus erectus), Ekra (Erianthus revanas), Dhopatia ( Clerodendron viscosum), etc.
Bamboo: Kako bans (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), and Bojal Bans ( Bambusa pallida)
Cane: Lejaibet (Calamus floribundus), Raidang bet (Calamus flagellum).
Palm: Toko palm (Livistona jenkensii).
Climber: Dhekialata(Stencx;hinapalustre),Ghilalata(Bauhiniavahlii),Gowalialata( Vitis latifolia), Kumarica lata (Dioscorea indica), Kuchai (Acacia pinnata), Panilata(Vitisplanicaulis),Miicania(Mikanaiamicrantha),etc.

II. Sub-Himalayan light alluvial Semi-Evergreen forest - 2B/C1/1S1 : This forest subtype is generally found distributed in the outer and eastern side of Gutin RF and parts of Mebo RF. Evergreen species are dominant though deciduous species are also present in significant proportion and the forest is a mixture of both species. Middle storey is prominent and consists of mixture of evergreen and deciduous species with abundant shrubby undergrowth. Floristic composition of this forest is almost same as that of 2B/C1 (a) the important variation being prominence of Jutuli (Altingia excelsa) and Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa). The floristic composition is given below:
Top Storey: Hollock ( Terminalia myriocarpa), Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Bonsum (Phoebe goalparensis), Sopa (Magnolia spp.), Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum) Poma (Cedrela toona), Mekahi (Phoebe cooperiana), Amari (Amoora wallichii), Bohera (Terminalia belerica), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora)
Middle storey: Haldisopa( Adina oligocephala), Jamuk (syzygium cuminii), Nahar( Mesua ferrea), Banderdima (Dysoxylum binectiferum), Sam (Artocarpus chaplasha), Pichola (Kydia calycina), Moj (Albazia lucida), Sia Nahar (Kayea assamica), Selleng (Sapium baccatum) etc.
Lower storey: Bual (Bhertia acuminata), Boromthuri (Talauma hodgsonii), Gahari sopa (Magnolia griffithii), Bon am (Mangifera sylvatica), Surat (Laportea cranulata),etc.
Ground flora: Hati bhekuri (solanum subtrucatum), Bonposala (Sarauja punduana), Kaupat (Phrynium imbricatum), Tora (Albina alludhas), Bhat (Clerodendron infortunatum), Kolgoch( Musa spp.), Bogitora(slopina molluccensis).
Bamboo: Kako bans (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), Bojal bans (Pseudostachyum polymorphum).
Cane: Lejai bet (Calamus floribundus) Raidangbet(Calamus flagellum).
Palm: Toko palm(Livistonia jenkensii), Jeng (Calamus erectus).
Climber: Ghila lata (Bauhinia vahlii), Pani lata (Vitis planicaulis), Kuchai (Acaci a pinnata), Gowlia lata (Vitis latoflolia), Dimorulata (Ficus scandens), Hegumi lata (Tinospora cordifolia), Mermeri lata (Gnetum scandeus), etc.

III. Eastern Hollock forest 3/lS2(b): This type of forest is found in the higher riverian areas of Pasighat, Poba and Pasighat Station RF. In this type of Forest evergreen trees are dominant in top canopy. Hollock is found in higher proportions. There is dense 'and shrubby undergrowth without grass. The soil is alluvial mainly sandy with claypatches in depressions. The floristic composition is given below:
Top Storey: Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa )rKhokan (Duabanga grandiflora), Bogipoma (Chikassia tabularies), Hatipoila (Pterospermum acerifolium), Poma( Toonaciliata), Simul (Bombax ceiba), Borpat (Ailanthus grandis), Dhuna (Canariumresiniferum), SopaMagnolia spp.), Hillika( Terminalia belerica), and (Heritieri macrophylla), etc.
Middle Storey: Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Pichola (Kydia calycina), Banderdima (Dysoxylambinectiferum), Paroli (Stereospermum chelonoides), Urium (Bischofiajavanica), Outenga (Dillenia indica), Koroi (Albizia procera), Moj (Albizia lucida ) etc.
Lower Storey: Jamuk (Syzygium cuminii), Poreng (Olea dioica), Dimuru (Ficuslepidosa), Boramthuri (Taluma hodgsonii), Selleng (Sapium baccatum), Morhal (Vatica lancaefolia), etc.
Ground Cover: Kaupat (Phryniumimbricatum), Bhat (Clerodendron infortunatum), Tora Tenga (Citrus spp.) Dhopatia ( Clerodendron viscosum) , Bogitora ( Slopina molluccenisis), Khagri (Saccharum spontaneum), Kolgoch (Musa spp.) Ikra ( Erianthus ravanas) etc.Kaupat (Phryniumimbricatum), Bhat (Clerodendron infortunatum), Tora Tenga (Citrus spp.) Dhopatia ( Clerodendron viscosum) , Bogitora ( Slopina molluccenisis), Khagri (Saccharum spontaneum), Kolgoch (Musa spp.) Ikra ( Erianthus ravanas) etc.
Bamboo: Kako (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), Bohal bans (Pseudostachyum polymorphum).
Cane: Lejai bet (Calamus floribundus).
Other M.F.P.: Pipli (Pipper spp.), found particularly in Pasighat Reserve Forest.
Climber: Ghila lata (Bauhinia vahlii), Kachai (Acacia pinnata), Pani lata (vitis planicaulis), Mikania (Mikania micrantha), Dhekia lata (Stenochina palustre), Kumaric lata (Dioscorea indica), etc.

IV. Secondary moist bamboo brakes 2b/2S1 : Secondary moist bamboo brakes occur in scattered patches throughout all the Tropical Semi Evergreen forests especially in Gutin and Mebo RF. When the bamboo brakes have overhead trees they form thinner clump, but at places where pure bamboo patches are found, the clumps are thick an there is no possibility of regeneration of any tree species in these bamboo species found in the forests are given below:
A. Kako Bans (Dendroacalamus hamiltonii)
B. BijuliBans(Bambusapallida)
C. BojalBans(Pseudostrachyumpolymorphum)
Undergrowth: The under growth mostly consists of Kaupat (Phrynium imbrication), Bhat (Clerodendron infortunatum), Ranga Bhat (Clerodendron viscosum).

Section-2: Orchids:The following orchids occur in the R.F's which are of very high value. Some of the endan­gered Orchids e.g. Coelogyne barbata, Galeola falconeri, Paphiopediluni fairieanum, etc. are also found in the R.Fs. These orchids need preservation as well as protection to avoid extinction of these species within a short span of time.
List of Orchids found in Arunachal Pradesh:

1 Acampe papillosa  23 B. penicillium 45 Cymbidium aloifolium 67 E. fragrans
2 A.rigida  24 Culanthe el aval a 46 C. mitnronianum 68 E. striata
3 Acanthophippium sylheinse 25 C. biloha 47 Dendrobium acinacijorme 69 E. graminifolia
4 Aerides mulliflorum   26 C. densiflora   48 D. aphyllum 70 E. spicala
5 A williamsii 27 Ceratostylis teres 49 D. caieartii 71 Gastrochil us calceolaris
6 Agrostophyllum brevipes  28 Chiloschista lumfera 50 D. cumalatum 72 G. dasypogon
7 Arundina graminifolia 29 Cleisocentrom triehromum 51 D. pimbiatum var, Oculaium 73 Galeo la fulconeri
8 Anthogonium gracile 30 Cleisostoma receniforum                52 D. densiflorum 74 Geodorum purpureitm
9 Arachnis clarkii  31 Cleisosioma filiforae 53 D. falconeri 75 Goodyer procera
10 Beirmannia bimaculaia 32 Coelogyne flavida  54 D. hookerianum 76 Kingigidium deliciesum
11 Bulhophyllum capillipes 33 C. barbata 55 D.jonkensii 77 Lipans duthiei
12 B. delitencens 34 C flaccula 56 D. pendulum 78 L. planlaginea
13 B. hirtum 35 C. grifflthii  57 Epigeneiwn amplum 79 Luisia lereiifolia
14 B sikkimense  36  C. nitida  58 Cryotochilus sanguinea 80 L. filiformis
15 B. leopardinum  37 C. prolif era  59 Diplomeris hirsute 81 Malaxis laifolia
16 B. acudum  38 C. schullesii 60 Eria acervata 82 Micropera mannii
17 Nervulia frammieana 39 Pleione praccex 61 Paphiopedilum fairieanum 83 Unsifera obtusifolia
18 Operonia maxima 40 Renenthera indica 62 Otochyllum fusca 84 Papilionthe teres
19 Oeacaulis 41 Thelasis Longfolia 63 Ornithochilus difformis 85 Vanda alpine
20 Phalaenopsis parishii  42 Pterocera guavcolens 64 Rhyncostylis retusa 86 Phaius flavus
21 P. tankervilliae 43 Trixperum pygmaeum 65 Pholidoda articulate 87 Tylostylis discolor
22 Pomatocalpa armigerum 44 Vanda coerulescens 66 Phreatia flegans 88 Zeuxine strateumatica


Life: The Division is rich in wildlife both in variety and number. In the past one had not to go see animals. Sambar an barking deer were a common sight. Elephant herds were frequently Tigers and panthers were also quit common. The wild life has dwindles over the years ' poaching and customary hunting by local tribals. However wildlife is still available in fair number compared to the adjoining state. There are about 20 to 25 species of mammals including rats and smaller animals. Avi-faunais particularly rich. Reptiks and Fish population is also rich. Apart from vertebrates a large number of invertebrate animals are found in these forests. The wildlife commonly found in the R.F's are given below:

Sl. No. Family   Scientific Name English Name Local Assamese Name
1 Primates        
 

a)       Monkeys

1 Presbytes entellus Commob langur Hollock
    2 Macaca Assames Macaque Bander
    3 Assamensis Macaca mulata Bander
 

b)       Lemurs

1 Rhesus macque Slow Loris Lazuki Bander
Nycticebus coucang
2 carbuvires felidas 1 Panthera tigris Tiger Bagh
carnivores felidas 2 Panthera Pardus Leopard Nahar phutuki bagh
a) Cats
  Felidas 3 Neofelis nebulosa Clouded leopard --
4 Felish bengalensis Leopard cat

Lotamakuri bagh

5 Felish chaus Jungle cat --
b) Dogs 1 Coun alpinus Wild dog Ram kukur
2 Canis aureus Jackal Boudh sial
3 Vulpes bengalensis Indian fox Sial
c) Civets veverridae 1 Veverra zibertha Large Indian Civet Hapah
Civets veverridae 2 Viverricula indica Small Indian Civet Hapah
d) Mongoose 1 Herpestes edwardsi Common mongoose Neul
Harpestidae 2 Herpestes auropunctatus Small Indian mongoose

Neul, Udd.

e) Other musta iidae 1 Lutra lutra Common otter
3 Herbivores
a) Elephant Elephasmiximus Indian elephant Hati
proboscidae
b) Cattle bovidae Bos frontalis Mithun Mithun
Bubalusbubalis Wildbaffalo Moh
c) Goats bovidae Likely to occur at higher altitude

d) Deercervidae

Deer cervidae

Deer cervidae

Cervus unicolor Muntiacmuntjak

moschus moschiferus

Sambor

Barking deer Musk deer

Sorpohu

Segoli pohu Kosturib pohu

4 Insectivors Order pholidota

Manis crassicurudata

Indian pangolin

Banrou

5

Omnivores   a) Bear

 b) Boar suidae

Selenarctos thibetanus (Sloth bear is also Likely to be found)  Sus scrofa

Himalayan Black               Bear Indian wild pig

Bhaluk
6

Hares Leporadae

Lepusnigricollis

Rufous tailed hare

Sohapohu

7

Rhodents  a)Percupine

b) Various species of rat, mole & shrews c) Squirrels

Hystrixindica

Indian percupine

Ketelapohu

Among the Squirrels the following are reported from these forests, which belong to order Rhodentia. a) Particoloured frying Squirrel (Hylopetesalbonigar) b) Common giant Squirrel ( Pataurista. pataurista) c) HoarybelliedHimalayan Squirrel (Cellosciuruspygerythrus)

BIRDS: A large number of birds are found in these forests, some of which are rare and endangered.
i) Three varieties of Owls. ii) Partidges. iii) Peacock Pheasant iv) Tragopan v) Water hen vi) Night Jar vii) Different kind of Thrushes viii) Barbets ix) Wood peckers x) Babblers xi) Bluwjoy of Rollar xii) Lapwing xiii) Tragopan xiv) Pintailed Green Pigeon xv) Ashy Wood Pigeon xvi) Spekled Wood Pigeon xvii) Parakeets xviii) Kingfishers xix) Great Indian pied hornbill xx) Wreathed Hornbill xxi) Orioles xxii) Four varities of Drongoes xxiii) Robin xxiv) Wall Creeper xxv) Chlorposis xxvi) Bulbul xxvii) Sun Birds xxviii) Hill Myna xxix) Common myna xxx) Jungle Crow xxxi) Flower peckers xxxii) Wag tails xxxiii) Hoopoe xxxiv) Egret and Herons xxxv) Little cormorant xxxvi) Stroks xxxvii) Bronze winged Jacana xxxviii) Indian Coursers xxxix) Emereld dove xl) Spotted Dove xli) Koel xlii) Coucal xliii) Hawk cockoo or Brain fever bird.

REPTILES:
a) Snakes: Large number of species of snakes are found in the Division including both poisonous and non-poisonous. Important snakes found in these forests are mentioned below :-
Poisonous Snake: i) Spectacled Cobras or Common Cobras - Najanajanaja, ii) Monocled Cobra - NajanajaKaoutha, iii) King Cobra- Ophiophagus harm (Sonko chur) iv) Black Krait - Bungarusniger v) Banded Krait - Bungarus fasciatus vi) Pit vipers- Trimeresurus specie vii) Russels viper- Viperaruselli
Non-poisonous snake: i) Indian Python-Python molurus ii)Yellow ballied Forest - Rhabdophis bicelor snake iii) Common Indian black snake - Xenochorphis iv) The Whip snake v) Common Cat snake - Boigatrigonata vi) Checkered keel back - vii) Himalayan keel back - Rhapdophis himalayan viii) Rat snake - Ptyasmucosus ix) Striped keel back - Amphiesmastolate
b) Lizards: Different varieties of Lizards are found "Guisap" (Monitor Lizards) are fruit common, Gharials are also found in the Subansiri River.

Fishes: There are large number of fresh water fish found in the perennial stream, lakes, ponds and rivers.

List of Endangered Wildlife of Arunachal Pradesh:
(i) Endangered Flora: 1. Magnolia griffithii HK. f. & Th.. 2. M. gustavi King 3. Maglietia insignis BI. 4. Dicentra roylei HK.F.& Th. 5. Saurauia griffithii 6. Ilex embeloides HK.F 7. I.. Venul.osa H.K.f 8. Euonymus bullatus wall cx Lindl. 9. Phanera Khasiana (Baker) Thoth. 10. Merrilliopanax cordifolia Sastry 11. Mydelia mukherjiana. 12. Nertera sinensis Homsi. 13. Leptodermis scabrida 14. Rhododendron concinnoidea Hutch. Et. Ward. 15. R. nuttallii Booth 16. R. santapaui Sastry et al. 17. R. subansiriense Chamberlin 18. Alniphyllum fortunei (Hemsi) Makino 19. Haodendron biaristatum (Sm.) Rehder. 20. Pauia belladonna Deb et Detta. 21. Galeola nudifolia Lour. 22. Christnensenia aesculifolia (BI) Maxon 23. Agapetea subansirica G.D. Pal 24. Sapria himalayana Griff. 25. Primula subansirica G.D. Pal 26. Ophiorrhiza talevallensis G.D. Pal 27. Aconogonum pangianum G.D. Pal 28. Acanthephi sychetense Lind I 29. Coptis teeta Linn.

Source: Botanical Survey of India, Itanagar (ref.vide No. BST/ASS/1194-Tech/883 dt, 14-12-94)


(ii) Endangered Fauna:
A. Mammals:

1. Hylobates hoolock (Harlan) Hoolock Gibbon
2. Helarctos malayanus (Raffles)  Malayan Sun Bear
3. Urnus arctos isabellinus (Horslleld)  Himalayan Brown Bear
4. Ailurus fulgens (Cuvier) Red Panda
5. Arctictis binturong (Raffles) Binturong
6. Priondon pardicolor (Hodgson) Spotted Linsang
7. Felis marmorata (Martin) Marbled Cat
8. Felis temmincki (Vigors & Horsfield)  Golden Cat
9. Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith) Clouded Leopard
10. Moschus ohrysogaster (Hodgson) 

Himalayan Musk Deer


B. Aves:

1. Ciconia ciconia boyciana (Swinhoe) Eastern White Stock
2. Platalea leucorodia major (Temminck & Schlege) White Spoon bill
3. Falco biammicus (Temminck) Lagger Falcon
4. Tragopan temmincki (J.E. Gray) Temminck's Tragopan
5. Crossoptilon crossoptilon harmani (Elwes) Elwes's Eared Pheasant
6. Lophophorus soletari (Jardon) Sclater's or Mishmi
7. Eupodotis bengalensis (Gmelin) Bengal Florican
8. Buceros bicornis homrai (Hodgson) Great Pied Hornbill


C. Reptiles:

1. Crocodylus palustris (Lesson) Marsh Crocodile/Mugger
2. Varanus bengalensis (Daudin) Common Indian Monitor
3. Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke & Gray) Yellow Monitor
4. Python molurus (Linnaeus) India Rock Python
5. Python reticulates (Schneider)   Reticulated Python.


D. Amphibia:
1. Tylototriton verrucosus (Anderson)        Himalayan Newt.

Source : Zoological Survey of India (Ref. Vide kr. Mo. F.4-2/94-Tech/788 did. 14.12.94.)


Department of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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