Introduction: The Mouling National Park was created in 1986 vide Gazette notification No. FOR/55/Gen/81 dt.30th Dec.’86. The name Mouling has been derived from highest peak named Mouling as per local faith and belief. The word Mouling has got a lot of curiosity among the people. As far as etymology is concerned it is an “ADI” word, which means RED POISION, derived from or extract from a plant, which is found in the Mouling area only. Besides, there are some mythological stories associated with Mouling hills pertaining to Apang community.
Ecology features: The genetic and ecological features of the Mouling National Park are one of the unique and classic example of wide bio-diversity and its balance in the natural forests of eastern Himalayas. The abrupt juxtaposition of so many different biotopes or life zone ranging from 3064 mtrs to 5000 mtrs. is the transit zone between tropical to cold and it is favorable and ideal condition for the varieties of plant and animal growth. The richness and varieties of flora and fauna is perhaps unequal on the earth. Such characteristic genetic and ecological diversity is a very rare phenomenon.
Location and Area: The National Park lies in between 28028’ to 28042’ North latitude and 94042’ to 95001’ East longitude covering part of Uppar Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh (Topo sheet No.82L/10, 82L/14, 82L/15 and 82 P/2). The area of the National Park is 483 Sq.km.
Headquarter: Jengging, 130 Km and 185 Km from Along and Pasighat respectively, headquarters of West and East Siang District.
Climate: In low altitude temperature ranges between 150C to 380C, Winter snowfall is experienced in higher altitudes. Temperature varies from 4.200C to 17.70C at altitudes ranging from 2200 mtr onwards.
Rainfall: Maximum rainfall is received from May to October during S/W monsoon about 80% of total rainfall. 15% rainfall is received during winter December to March. 5% rainfall as conventional rain as permission showers during March to April. It is about 2000 mm annually. Humidity ranges from 60% to 80%.
Frost: Frost is common from 900 mt to 1000 mt during winter season.
Dew and Winds: Dew in the night is common throughout the year. Cold winds are very common and prevailing winds in other season are with moderate velocity. Cyclonic storms are experienced during the month of March and April occasionally.
Snowfall: Snowfall is very common on Mouling peak during winter season (from December to February)
Water: Major rivers / streams coming down from the catchment area of Ganging Mouling area are Yarku, Niyikgong, Sikir Umding / From the catchment area of Mouling Sibum are Karbung, Subbung and Sipo.
Settlement: There is no settlement inside the Park. Approach is very difficult and no road communication is there to make the Park accessible. Many local people have never visited the Park. Thus land still remains as a mystery for both local people as well as for the naturalists and scientists.
Socio-Economic: Tribe - Belongs to ADI Community.
Life style: Cultivation, hunting, fishing and collection of vegetable from the forest. Now Horticulture has gained popularity and orange gardens are very common.
Pattern: Jhum cultivation is very common, terrace cultivation of paddy is done, besides Maize, Arum, Mustard and Pine apple in small quantity.
Cattle population: There is no pressure of cattle grazing inside the National Park as the villages are far away from the Park.
External Development Threats: It is out of any external development threat. All villages are situated 10 to 50 km away from the National Park boundary.
Tourism and Development: It is situated at a remote area and poor communication system. No such tourism development is proposed. A small museum cum interpretation centre is proposed to construct at Jengging.
Flora and Fauna: General characteristic of vegetation is as Northern Tropical Forest at lower altitude upto 1200 mtr and moist temperate Forests at an altitude of about 2800 mtr to 3600 mtr.
Forest types: 2B/C1/IS1 - Northern tropical Semi Evergreen Forests (Sub-Himalayan light alluvial semi evergreen forests), 2B/C1/1S2 - Northern tropical semi evergreen forests (Eastern alluvial secondary semi evergreen forests)., 3C/IS2(B). Northern Indian Moist deciduous Forests (Eastern Hollock Forests), 2/2S1 - Secondary moist bamboo tracts - Temperate Broad leaved Forests. - Temperate conifer Forests.
Flora: Primitive spp. - Magnolea, cythea, Gnetum, Griffithia etc.; Palms - Livistoma, calamus, wallichia, caryota etc; Pandamus, Musa also present; Other common spp. like Betula, Alnus, Exbuklandia, Quercus spp.
Fauna: Except few, all the taxonomic classes of animals are present in the Park.
of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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