The favourable rainfall, temperature and high humidity obtaining in the areas, have caused the vegetation to acquire the general characteristics of the Tropical Evergreen Forests, although the area lies to the north of geographical tropics. The heterogenous forests found in the tract dealt with can be broadly classified into the following types after CHAMPION AND SETH's classification of the Forest Types :-
I. IB C - 1 - Northern Tropical Evergreen Forests (Assam Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests (Diptcrocarpus).
II. 3C lS2(b)- North Indian Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests (Eastern Hollock Forests-Terminalia-Duabanga).
III. Miscellaneous Forests.
The main feature of the Forests dealt with is the heterogenous mixture of the species clear description of which is extremely difficult. A mere catalogue of the species found in different areas will probably show that there is hardly any distinction between the different types of crop covering the entire tract. But this is not true. Different types of soil have vegetation of their own and the real difference lies in the relative dominance of a certain number of species forming the mixture.
Type I is easily distinguishable owing to the dominance of Hollong(Dipterocarpusretusus =D.macrocarpus) and or Mekai(Shorea assamica) which are the main plywood timbers in the locality. While in type II, Hollock(Terminalia myriocarpa) is the predominant spp, As the name implies in type III no single spp. is particularly dominant. This includes open understocked inferior forests where grasses like thatch(Imperata arundinacium), Khagri (Saccharum spontaneum), Nol. (Phragmites karka). Tota (Alpinia spp.) and Ekra (Erianthus rovancese) etc. Inferior tree species such as Outenga (Dillenia indica). Madar (Erythrina suberosa), Uriam (Bischofia avanica), Pichola(Kydia glabrescens)etc. are dotted here & there.
TYPE- 1B C : DIPTEROCARPUS FORESTS:
The above mentioned three broad types can be further divided into sub-classes depending upon the frequency of occurrence or absence of one of the main species in the top of the lower story of the forests complex while the main composition of the type, however, remaining more or less the same. This type is found well represented in Honkap, Kathang and Namdang Reserve. These are typically three storeyed forests in which Hollong and Mekai form a definite dominant layer. Hollong occurs gregariously on the well drained high level alluvial plains in the foothills while at higher elevations and on the ridges, it is replaced by Mekai which occurs in more or less pure patches on comparatively dried & gravelly soils. Other species occurring in the top storey are Gonsoroi(Cinnamomum cecicodaphne), Sam (Artocarpus chaplasa), Tita Sopa (Talauma phellocarpa), Poma (Toona ciliata), Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) etc. The middle storey consists predominantly of Nahor in Kathang Reserve Forests but it is not so in the case of same type of forests in other areas like Namdang, Rima, Namgoi etc. though in these areas Nahor does occur & even a few pure patches of Nahor could also be seen here & there, yet in general the percentage of Nahor is significantly poor & in some areas it is absolutely non existent. In fact, middle storey in these forests, is not dominated by any single spp. worth the name. Dhuna (Carariumstrictum resiniferum), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora),Gendhelipoma (Dysoxylum hamiltonii), Sopa (Magnolia grifflthii) (Manglietia insignis), (Michelia montana), (Michelia oblonga etc.) Phulgamari (Endospermum chinensc), Morhal (Vatica lanceaefolia), Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Banderdima (Dysoxylum binectariferum), Baramthuri (Talauma hodgsonii). Outenga (Dillenia indica), Thekera (Garcinia spp.) Jamuk (Niasygium cuminii) Gapumora (Cypteronia paniculata), Dalmugra (Gynocordia odorata), Pichola (Kydia glabiriscens). Rudrakh(Elaeocarpus sphaericus) are the species which commonly occur in the second storeyThe lowest tree stratum consists mainly of shade bearer spp. viz. Banderdima (Dysoxylum binectariferium), Morhal (Vatica lanceafolia), Thekera (Gareinia spp.) Leteku (Baccaurea sapida), Baramthuri(Talauma hodgsonii).Outenga ( Dillenia indica), Dalmugra Gynocardia odorata ). Tejranga (Knemalinifolia ) etc. Density of the canopy of this stratum .varies inversely with the combined density of the upper canopies. But where there is variety of trees in the upper canopy, shade bearing trees are gradually replaced by deciduous spp, like phakdima ( Trema orientalis ). Siris ( Albizia spp ). Morelia ( Mallotus albus) , Gohora ( Premna bengalensis ) , Paroli (Stercospermum) , ghoraneem Melia azaderiach) , Seleng ( Sapium baccatum) , etc. associated with bamboos ( mainly kako bamboos ). In the process bamboos ultimately invade the area & in places form a thick mat. Beside kako bamboo ( Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), which forms about 95% of the bamboo crop , few other varieties of bamboos are also found to occur occasionally . The undergrowth is composed of woody shrubs viz, Kukrathenga (Leela indica), Chartthenga (Leea acuminata), Leteku ( Baccaurea sapida), Surat (Laportea crenulata), Phutki ( Melastoma malabathricum) like Kaupat ( Phryrnium spp. ) , Tora ( Alpinia aleughas ), Bogitora ( Alpinia molluccensis) , Kolgoch ( Musa spp.) etc. particularly in comparatively moist area. Among the canes & Palms , Garuga tamul ( Pinanga gracilis ) comes in comparatively dried areas and Jengu (Calamus erectus) in comparatively moist areas occur in abundance . Houkabet (Calamus latifolius) , Lezaibet ( Calamus floribundus ) , Raindang ( Calamus flagellum ) , Tokopot ( Livistona jenkinsiana) etc, are also found occasionally. Because of the existence of quite close canopies in the over head and resultant accumulation of thicJk humus on the forest floor, different species of ferns. a number of spp. of Begonia and large number of herbs and undershrubs constitute rather a thick ground cover. Among different varieties of grasses, mention may be made of Kush (Saccharum spontaneum) Kher (Imperara cylindrica ). Megheli ( Erianuthus arundinaceous ) . Ekra ( Erianthus ravenao ) Megheli (Erianthus arundinaceous), Ekra (Erianthus ravenae) Nol. (Phragmites karka) etc. which are found to grows the alluvial soil near the streams . Jharugach ( Thysanolaena maxima ), the flower stalks which are often used for making brooms, occur in small quantity . on the hill cutting near the roadside . Climbers are quite plenty , particularly where the overhead canopy is thin . The common ones are Derris ferruginea, Derris trifoliata Derris elliptica( Ase-Makhori Ghilla), Baiea parvifloru (Ass- Hathi lota ), Acacia pruinescens (Ass- kochoi kaint). Acacia pennata (Ass- Kuchai), Acaciaoxyphylla (Ass- Kochari Kaint), Thunbergia coccinea (Ass - Chonga lota), Tapiria hirsuta (Ass- amrolia lota), Entada phaseoloides (Ghila lota), Mucuna nigricans (Ass- Nokuri ghila), etc. Dipterocarpus forests of the division are in general healthy except over the rocky hills with steep slopes where both Hollong and Mekai do not appear to be healthy . Most of them posses medium sized boles with-small and un-healthy crowns. The Hollong forest attains its best in the well drained , undulating country near the foothills consisting of broken covered with a deep layer of rich sandy loamy alluvial soil. The ground condition if comparatively moist, supporting sparse growth of ground cover and consisting mainly of Garuga tamul ( Pinanga gracilis ) leaving the soil exposed to receive the Hollong seed which falls through the lighter middle & lower canopies. The sun rays filter through the gaps and provide diffused light on the forest floor. Natural regeneration in the form of seedlings, saplings & poles (advanced growth) comes up in such areas even before any fellings are done. On the other hand in shaded localities or areas having middle or lower canopies consisting of thick of Morhal, Bamboos or Jengu (Calamus erectus), the sunrays are unable to reach the forest floor which results in a very wet soil conditions. Hollong Regeneration is conspicuous by its absence in such areas and gradually the forest assumes miscellaneous character supporting commercially inferior species such as jutuli ( Altingia excelsa), Amari ( Amoora wallichii). Hillika (Terminalia citrina), Khokan ( Duabanga grandflora), Sam ( Artocarpus chaplasha), Phulgamari (Endospermum chinense ), Hollock ( Terminalia myriocarpa) etc. Again on drier slopes, especially on the ridges and steep hill slopes having shallow soil , inferior type of vegetation thrives in which trees of Jutuli. Hillika, amari, Hollock, Bogipoma , Khokan etc. are dotted here and there. Jengu comes up profusely in such areas and forms almost impenetrable cover 3-4 meter above the ground , which prevents even rain after a light shower from reaching the ground. These variations in the vegetation which are primarily the result of edaphic and microclimatic factors explain the presence of pockets of miscellaneous vegetation in the main belt of the Hollong Mekai forests .
Under Storey :- Thin understorey is composed of Nahar & Mekai Poles Tejranga, Amora Leteku, Thekera, Gherai Thenga, Kukura Thenga etc. Ground cover is sparse and contains sundibet (Calamus garuba) Kaupat and Garuga Tamul sporadically. The irregular forest having a broken canopy thus allows diffused sunlight to filter through the 'Pepper Pots' down to the ground floor. Mekai Regeneration has come up profusely under such ideal conditions all over the gently sloping area. Seedlings of another 'refractory' species, Jutuli are also coming up like weeds in this areas. The limiting factors contributing to the presence of Hollong & Mekai regeneration therefore, appears to be :-
1. Ability of the seed to come in contact with the soil before losing its viability
2. Ability of the sun rays to penetrate to the ground level to provide diffused light for the growth and development of seedlings.
Ecological Status :- As has been observed earlier in para 50 Hollong and Mekai regeneration is conspiceous by its absence in the well stocked area. It appears, after the recruitment and stocking of such areas with the principal species, the succession gradually advanced towards more moist and humid conditions which did not favour the natural reproduction of the principal species. This exposes 'Climatic Climax' status of this forest to some doubt. ' Cyclic Climax' as against the accepted theory of a 'Static Climax has therefore to be conisdered. In order to restrict the reproduction of only the few favoured species this forest will have tobe kept at 'pre-climax ' or 'sub -climax' stage.
TYPE - 3 C 1S2 / 1S2 (b) HOLLONG - FORESTS :- The striking characterstic of this type is that most of the species occupying, shed their leaves for short period during February-March while the under storey is composed of evergreen. These are found generally on alluvial flats along river and stream banks . Hoi-lock (Terminalia myrocarpa) is the most dominant species which occurs almost in pure patches of varying extent of favourable sites formed by , fresh deposits near the river banks. Other associates in the top canopy in order of predominance are Khokan ( Duabanga grandiaflora) , Hillika ( Terminalia citrina ), Bohera (Terminalia bellirica ), Champa ( Mikchelia champaca) Titasopa ( Talauma phellocarpa), Sopas (Mangnolia spp.), Hatipoila (Pterospermum acerifolium ), Gamari ( Gmelina arborea ). Amari (Amoora wallichii), Sam ( Artocarpus chaplasha ). Bola (Morus Laevigata ), Uriam ( Bischofia javanica), Dhuna (Canarium strictum). udal Sterculia villosa ),• Borpat (Ailanthus gr-andis), BogiPoma (Chukrassia tabularis).
The middle storey is generally dense and consists of mainly uriam (Bischofia javanica), Outonga(Dillenia indica). Banderdima (Dysoxylum binectariferum), Hingori (Castanopsis indica) Jamuk (Syzygium cuminii), Pichola (Kyndia glabrescns), Baramthuri (Talauma hodgsonii), Morolia (Macaranga, denticulata), Dalmugra (Gynocardia odorata). Gorumora (Crypteronia), Morhal (Vatica lanceafolia) Moj (Albizia lucida) and bamboos (Bojal, kako Dalu etc.) The undergrowth is very dense and is comprised of Tora(Alpinia allughas), Surat (Laportea crenulata), Jeng (Calamus erectus), Raidang(Calamus flagellum). Lezai bet (Calamus floribundus), Kukratenga (Leea sambucina), Mussanda glabra, Eupatorium, Kaupat (Phrynium imbricatum) etc.
The forest is infested with numerous climbers like, Acacia pennata, Vites latifolia, Tinospora, Mikenia miccrantha, (Known as a 'Mile a minute', plant) which is both a climber and a creeper and has a tendency to occupy the ground immediately after an opening or clearance is made in the forest.
REGENERATION STATUS :- Natural Regeneration of Hollock and other important species found in this type of forests is generally poor. However in the areas affected by occasional inundations along the major rivers Hollock is found to regenerate profusely on freshly deposited silt as soon as the area rises above the annual flood level.
MISCELLANEOUS FORESTS :- These Forests conform partly to Type IB/251 and partly 3C/IS1 of Indian Forest Types (Champion and Seth). The type occur in scattered patches of varying sizes in all the Reserves. The open nature of the canopy is mainly due to the regression in the area brought about by clearing of the original forest for Jhum cultivation or due to annual flooding in areas on the river banks. The areas are generally covered with bamboos, canes, grasses and different species of climbers and epiphytes. The composition of the crop in such areas primarily depends on the condition of the soil and its drainage. Except for the occasional or perhaps accidental occurance of the main species like Hollock and Hollong in some of the patches. Trees of economic importance are generally rare in this type. Some of the important species found dotted in such open forests are Khokan, Borpat, Hillika, Outenga, Udal, Uriam, Hatipoila, Paroli, Simul, Pichola, Madar etc. in the top storey. Outenga occurs almost pure in ill drained areas while Madar & Simul are found almost exclusively on poor sandy soil which mainly support the grasses such as, thatch, Ekra, Nols. etc. The under growth is very dense and consists mainly Jeng, Raidang, Surat, Kaupat, Kukratenga, Garuga tamul etc. Jhum lands are generally abandoned after 2-3 years. At the lower slopes of the hills such abandoned lands are invaded by Phakdima(Trema orientalis) which comes up like weeds in the second year of the Jhum itself. Other early colonisers found in such areas are Macaranga denticulata and Morolia(Mallotus albus), On the other hand at the higher slopes and on the ridges, having shallow and dry soil conditions, jeng(Calamus erectus) is the pioneer species and bamboo follows gradually to form a thick, almost impenetrable cover on some of the areas.
BAMBOO :- Bamboo are found in almost pure patches of varying sizes scattered all over the area. The most common species found is Dalu(Teinostachyum dulloa). Others occuring in an admixture or in pure patches are kako(Dendrocalamus hamiltonii). Bijuli (Bambusa pallida), Bhojal (Psudostachyum) is seen sparingly. Jati (Bambusa tulda) has also been seen in small patches perhaps as the remanent of abandoned settlements of Jhumias.
CANES :- Raidang (Calamus flagellum), Lejai (Calamus floribundus) and Jengu (Calamus erectus)are the common canes in the area while a very thin cane called Sundibet (Calamus guruba) occurs only on the higher and drier slopes. Canes arc being worked on Mohal system.
PLANTATION :- The area covered so far under plantation and Aided Natural Regeneration in different Reserves is given in para 140 & 141. The exact location of the areas is, however, available in the stockmaps of the R.F. where these have been plotted. The species raised are mainly Hollock and Pichola. The initial growth of Pichola is better than Hollock and in mixed plantations, pichola has shown better than Hollock. Other species raised include Hollong, Teak, Jutuli, Bonsum, Simul, Eucalyptus, Ajar, Gamari etc. while Teak has shown poor growth perhaps due to unsuitable sites selected for raising the species. Although prior to Loganny's working plan no serious thought was given to the future man agement and utilization of these assets due to the fact that main object was to occupy the areas and create work for the staff. But in Loganny's working plan due thought was given and insisted on raising of plantation of the species of commercial importance with fast growing species to produce timber in perpetuity and to cover up the blanks so as to convert unproductive forest into more valuable tree land as quickly as possible.
FAUNA :- Wildlife and wilderness of the country have been under relentless pressures of hunting, land hunger, demands of Forests and Wildlife products and diversion of Forests land to developmental projects all arising from the above increasing human & livestock populations. These pressures, gathering mometum since the turn of the century, assumed menacing proportions in its later half. Consequent shrinkage and degradation of wilderness have caused many changes in ecosystem & species to become like wise face serious depletion. This however, is but an aspect of the over all decline in the extent and health of the forests of the country. The solution to these problems are not simple because conservation measures are constrained by the inevitable sustanance linkages of the forest living communities with wilderness. The decades of 70's & 80's have witnessed a growing awareness among people at large and in the Government. The laws governing forest and wildlife conservation have become more stringent and a number of special conservation projects have been directed at important species and ecosystems. The political expediency of diversion of forest land to agriculture and the erstwhile irestrainable 'development imperatives' have been substantially disciplined, but the task of undoing the colossal accumulated ravage is daunting and is bound to be embroiled in a protracted, difficult and resource demanding process. The experience gained in conservation here to emphasizes the essential link between forestry and wildlife conservation. The recent shifting of emphasis from productivity to environment in the forestry sector augurs well for wildlife conservation too. After all a large bulk of wildlife habitat lies in the forest outside the network of national parks and sanctuaries. All these forest are potential wildlife habitats. Moreover, all forestry practices influence habitat attributes, one way or the other. The corrider connections between nearby wildlife reserves are particularly significant for the movement of long ranging animals and these again can only be provided by the forests that occupy the interspaces. The fauna of the Division is rich both in variety and number. It includes some species of animals of the Chinese Sub-Region of the Oriental Zoo-Geographical Region, but some elements of the Indian Sub-Region are also represented in this area. This Division receives a large number of the migratory bird species which bread in the North of the Sine-Himalayan area. Bird fauna is particularly rich. Wild animals were abundant in this Division in the recent past. Sambar, Hog Deer and Barking Dear were found in big herds. Tiger and Panther were also found in plenty due to availability of natural prey in large number. However their number is dwindling day by day due to heavy poaching and unrestricted issue of arm licence in the past coupled with destruction of habitat by man from cultivation and settlement. Apart from these, there are large numbers of Reptiles, Snakes and Lizards equally rich with a number of fish in the rivers of the Division. There are large number of insects, earthworms, scorpions, centipedes and millipeds and brillently bright coloured butterflies. Identified certain forests areas are only covered by the Working Plan. Therefore, enumeration of the existing fauna has not been possible in a complete manner. Hence only the important specis of wildlife are mentioned below :-
|1. Primates :-||i) Common langur (Presbytis entellus)|
|a) Monkeys||ii) Capped langur (Presbytis pileatus)|
|ii) Rhesus Macaque (Macooa mulatta)|
|iv) Assamese Macaque (Macaca assamensis)|
|v) Slow Loris(Loris tradigradus)|
|2) Carnivores||i) Panther or Leopard(Panthera pardus)|
|a) Cats||ii) Clouded Leopard(Neofelis nebulese)|
|iii) Golden cat (Palis temmicki)|
|iv) Marbled cat (Palis marmerata)|
|v) Jungle cat (Palis chaus)|
|vi) Fishing cat(Falis viverrina|
|vii) Tiger (Panthera Tigris)|
|vii) Snow leopard(Pantheraumica)|
|ix) Leopard (Pantherapardus)|
|b) Dogs||i) ackal (Canis aurus)|
|ii) Indian Fox(Velpes bengalensis)|
|c) Civets||i) Large Indian Civet(Viverrazibaths)|
|ii) Common Palm Civet (Prodixurous)|
|iii) Masked Palm Civet(Pagumatarvata)|
|iv) Spotted Linsang(Prionadon Pardicolor)|
|v) Small Indian Civet (Viveracula indica)|
|d) Mongoose||i) Herpestes spp.|
|e) Otters||i) Common Otter(Lutra lutra)|
|3. Herbivores :-|
|a) Elephant||i) Indian Elephant(Elephans maximan)|
|b) Cattle||i) Wild Baffalo (Rubalus babualis)|
|c) Goats||i) Ghoral(Nemerheadus goral)|
|ii) Takin (Budoreas taxicolor)|
|d) Deer||i) Sambar (Carvus unicolor)|
|ii) Barking Deer(Euntiacus muntiasc)|
|iii) Hog Beer (Axis percifarus)|
|iv) Musk Deer (Moschus mochiferus)|
|4) Insectevores :-|
|a) Pangalion||i) Indian angolian(Manis crassicaudata)|
|ii) Chinese Pangolin (Mania Pantadostyla)|
|5. Ommnivores :-||i) Himalayan Black Bear (Selenarctes thibetanua|
|ii) Sloth Bear (Belusus Oreinus)|
|iii) Red Panda (Allurus Julgens)|
|b) Binturong||i) Binturong(Arctictis bintuurong)|
|c) Bears||i) Wild Bear (Sus scrofa)|
|6. Hares :-||i) Indian Hare(Lepus nigricaulis)|
|7. Rhodents :-|
|a) Porcupines||i) Indian Porcupine (Hustrix hodgsoni|
|b) Rat, Moles & Shrews||i) House Rat (Rattus rattus)|
|ii) Bandicoot Rat (Bandicootsa indica)|
|iii) White Bellied Rat (Rattus nivinantar)|
|iv) Common Tree Shrew (Tupais alis)|
|v) Long Tailed shrew (Sociculus lencopa)|
|vi) House shrew (Suncna muronus)|
|vii) Burrowing shrew (Aneusorex vuemipcs)|
|c) Squirrels||i) Hadgeona Flying Squirrel(Petuarista magnificus)|
|ii) Goant Flying Squirrel(Petaurista petaurist)|
|iii) Particoloured Flying Squirrel (Hylepates alboniger)|
|iv) Orange Bellieb Squirrel(Dacmomys lokrish)|
|v) Striped Squirrels.|
|8. 1. Bats||i) Indian Pipestralle (Piplstrallus coromendra)|
|ii) Indian Pigmy ipatrello (Pipastralusimimus)|
|iii) Moustachicad Bat (Myetas muricela)|
The Birds :- The most important bird of the area is the whitewinged wood Duck (Cairina aculata). Unfortunately it is one of the endangered birds and it has almost disappeared from the wild. Efforts to locate it in the forest has been a futile exercise only. However, there are few of them in captivity in the Gauhati Zoo of Assam and Mini Zoo of Arunachal Pradesh at Miao where they have been reported to have bred successfully. This bird requires all efforts to protect it from becoming extinct. Other birds in the area are given below :-
1. Bay Owl (Phodilus badius) 2. Scops Owl (Otus spilaeaphalus) 3. Indian scops Owl (Otus scaps) 4. Collared Scops Owl (Otus bakkamoana no pannant) 5. Tawny Fish Owl (Bube flaripas) 6. Collared Pigny Owlet (Glaucidium Cuculoides) 7. Himalayan Barrad Owlet(Glaucidium Cuculoides) 8. Brown Hawk Owl(Minex acutulata) 9. Spotted Owlet (Athene brama) 10. Himalayan Brown Wool Owl(Strixleptogrammica teminok) 11. Feathered Hawk Eagle (Spizzaetus nipalensis) 12. Benellis Hawl Eagle (Hieraetus fascitus) 13. Rufous bellied Hawk Eagle (Lophotriorichs kienerii) 14. Black Eagle (Lotinaetus mapayensis) 15. Rig tailed Eagle(Haliaeetus leucoryphus) 16. Temminek' s Tragopan (Tragopan tenomickii) 17. Peocock Pheasant(Polyplsetron bacalcaratum) 18. White breasted Waterhan(Amaurornis phoeninicutus) 19. Lapwing (Vanallus Vanallus) 20. Redwattled Lapwing (Vaneilusindicus) 21. Spurwinged Lapwing (Vanellus Spinesus) 22. Pintailed Green Pigeon(Treren apicauda) 23. Speckled Wood Pigeon (Columba hadgsonii) 24. Snow Pigeon (Columba pauconta) 25. Ashy Wood Pigeon (columba Pulchriollis) 26. Bartailed Cuckoo-Dove (Macropygia unchall) 27. Large Parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) 28. Red bossted Parkeet (Psittacula aleandri) 29. Eastern Blossom headed Parakset ((Psittacularossata biswas) 30. Himalayan Slastyhead Parkset (Psittacula himalayan) 31. Eastern Slatyhead Parkset(Psittacula finschii) 32. White throated Spine tail Swift(Chacturacaudacuta) 33. Apline Swift (Apus malba) 34. House Swift (Apus malba) 35. Redrumped Swallow (Hirundo rustica tytleri) 36. Longtailed Nightjhar (Caprimulgus macrurus Mors field) 37.Franklin's Nightjar (Caprimulgus affinismenticola Franklin) 38. Indian Cuckoo(Cuclus micropterus Gould) 39. Cuckoo Cuculus Canorus Linnaeous) 40. Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus Biyth) 41. Small Cuckoo(Cacomantis Sonneratii) 42. Baybanded Cuckoo(Cacomantis Sonneratii) 43. Roller(Coracies banghalansis) 44. Broadbilled Roler(Eurystomus Orientalis) 45. Collared Board hill(Serilophus lunatus) 46. Longlaliled Broadbill(Psarisomus dalhousiae) 47. Chestnutheaded ee-Feather(Manops leschenaulti Visillot) 48. Blue bearded Bee-Feather(Nyctyoris athertoni) 49. Himalayan Bied King Fisher(Ceryle lugubris) 50. Indian Pied King Fisher(Ceryle ruidis) 51. Great Blue Kingfisher(Alcedo hercules laubmann) 52. Blue Gather Kingfisher(Alcedo maninting Horsfield) 53. Threatoad Forest Kingfishers(Cayx erithaus) 54. Indian Ruddy Kingfisher (Halcyo coromands) 55. Whithbreasted Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) 56. Rufousnasacked Hornbill(Acero nipalensis vulture) 57. Wrethed Hornbil (Rhyticeros undulatus) 58. Great Pied Hornbill (Buceros bicornis) 59. Larger Golden backed Wood Pecker(Chrysocoptes lucidus) 60. Blacknaped Green Wood Pecker(Picus-canus) 61. Crimsonbreasted Pied Wood Pecker(Picoides cathpharius) 62. Lincated Barbet (Megalaima lineata) 63. Blue threated Barbet (Megalaima asistica) 64. Koal (Eudyuamy a scolopacsa) 65. Bronzed Drongo (Dicrus aenaus) 66. Large Brown Thrush(Zoothara monticola) 67. Black Dronge (Dicrurus adsimilis) 68. Dronge Cuckoo(Surniculus lungubris) 69. Grey Drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) 70. Hair Crested Drongo(Dicrurus bottentottus) 71. Lesser Racket Tailed Drongo(Dicrurus remifer) 72. Large Racket Tailed Drongo (Dicrurus paradisenas) 73. Jungle Crow(Corvus macrirhonchos Wagler) 74. Magpie Robin(Copsychus saularis) 75. Rm Collared Bush Chat (Sezicolo torquata) 76. Blue Chat (Erithacus bruneus) 77. Dark Gray Bush Chat(Seicola ferrea) 78. Black Bulbul(Hypsipetes medagascariensis) 79.Redvanted Bulbul(Pycnonotus cafer) 80. Redwbiskared Bulbul(Pycononotus jocosus) 81. Blackcrested Yellow Bulbul(Pycnonotus malanisterus) 82. Browneared Bulbul(Hypsipates lavalus) 83. Rufousbellied Bulbul(Hypsipates mcclellandi) 84. White broated Bulbul(Crinigar flaveolus) 85. Striated Grean Bulbul(Pycnotus striatus) 86. Black fronted Parrotbill(Paradoxonis nipelensis) 87. Fulyousfrouted Parrotbill(Paradoxonis fulvifrona) 88. Lesser Ref headed Parrotbill (Paradoxonis attrosuparcilliaris) 89. Bircbreasted Flowerpacker (Dicaeum ignipactus) 90. Yellownapal Yuhina (Yuhina flevicollis) 91. Whitebrowed Yuhina(Yuhina flevicollis Yuhina castanicapapa) 92. Slatyheaded Yuhina(Yuhina occipitalis) 93. Blackchinned Yuhina (Yuhina nigrimeuta) 94. Whitenapex Yuhina(Yuhina bakeri) 95. Whitebellied Yuhina(Yuhina zantholsuca) 96. Paradise Flycatchar(Terpsiphone Paradisi) 97. Greyhelled flycatcher(Culicicapa ceylonensis) 98. Blacknaped Monarch Flycatcher(Monarcha azurea) 99. Whitethroated Fantail Flycatchar (Rhipidura albicollia) 100. Pale Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa unicolor) 101. Verditer Flycatcher (Muscicapa thalassina) 102. Rufouscreasted Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa byperythra) 103. Redcrasted Flycatcher (Muscicapa Parva) 104. Brook's Flycatcher (Muscicapa Poliogenys) 105. Bluthreated Flycatcher (Muscicapa rubaculoides) 106. Sooty Flycatcher (Muscicapa sibirica) 107. Little pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa westermanni) 108. Greenbacked Tit (Parus monticolus) 109. Blackspotted Yellow Tit (Parus apolonotus) 110. Redheaded Tit (Aegithalos concinnus) 111. Yellow browed Tit (Sylviparus modestus) 112. Coal Tit (Parus Ster) 113. Brown Crested Tit (Parus dichrous) 114. Rufous froanted Tit (Aegithelas iouschistos) 115. Indian Tree Pipit (Anthus godlowskii) 116. Blyth's Pipit (Anthus godlowskii) 117. Grey Wagtail (Matacilla Caspica) 11 8. Forest Wagtail (Motacilla indica) 119. Large Pied Wagtail (Motacilla madarsspatensis) 120. Hodson's Pied Wagtail (Motacilla alba alboides) 121. Radheaded Rossfmch (Propyrrhula subhimechala) 122. Redcreasted Rossfmch(Carpodacus Punicaus) 123. Rosefmch (Carpodacus srythrinus) 124. Pincrowed Rosefubcg (Carpodacus rhodochrous) 125. Blanford's Rosefmch(Carpodacus rubescens) 126. Spotted Munia (Lonchura Punctulata) 127. The Black of King Culture(Torgos Calcus) 128. The Whitecacked or Bengal vulture (Gyps bengaleusis) 129. The Whits Scavenger Culture or Pharaoh's Chicken (Naophron percnopterus) 130. The common Teal (Anss crsacca Linnaeus) 131. The Gargasy or Blue winged Teal(Anas querquedula Linnasus) 132. The Yellowthreated Sqarrow (Petronia abthocelliz) 133. The House Sparrow(Passar domesticus)
The Reptitles :- There is to my best knowledge no Crocodile in the area. Gharial is also not known to occur in the area of the Working Plan. As regards Lizards there are a number of species. Some of them are : i) Luzosoma ii) Luzosoma indicum iii) Luzosoma courcvanumi iv) Gymmodactrylus spp. v) Takydromus Sexlincalus vi) Ilemidactylus brocki vii) Platyurus Platyurus
Monitory Lizard :- i) Indian Monitary Lizard (Varenus bengalanss) ii) Yellow Monitory Lizard (Varnus howascans)
Snakes :- There are also a number of species of snakes, some of them are poisonous. Amongst the poisonous snakes the following deserve Special mention.
i) Common Krait (Bungarus niger), ii) Banded Krait (Bugraus Bugraus), iii) Cobra (Naja naja Monocellates & Bicellate), iv) King Cobra (Naja hannah), v) Slender Coral Snake (Callophismslunurus) vi) Bambo pit Viper(Trineresurus gramresus) vii) Russels Viper (Vipera russelli).
Amongst the non-poisonous snakes are the following :- i) Python (Python molurus) ii) Common Warm snake (Typlina branmina) iii) Green kelback (Macripisthodon Plumbicclor) iv) Yellow Worl Snake (Lycodon jara) v) Striped Keel Back (Anphissma Stolota) vi) Common Word Snakes(Lycodon qulicus) vii) Stripadrocer (Elepha trainurs) viii) Rat Snake (Ptyas mucosus) ix) Green Rat Snake (Zeocys nigromavgninaka)
Fishes :- There are a number of fresh water fishes in the ponds, lakes and perennial streams and rivers. The common fishes available are given below with their scientific and local name.
|Common/Local name||Scientific name|
|1. Sheel gho-ria||Crossocheilus latius|
|2. Bok pithia||Tor tor or Mosal|
|3. Jonga pithin||Tor putitira|
|4. Shingi||He teropneous fassilis|
|5. Magur||Clarias batrachus|
|6. Goroi||Channa sp.|
|7. Borali||Wallage athi|
|8. Kanduli||Notopterus notopterus|
|9. Bami||Anguila sp.|
|10. Kuri||Labie gonius|
|11. Elang||Rasbora elanga|
|12. Kakila||Xementados cancila|
|13. Puthi||Puntius sp.|
|14. Tengra||Meptus singhala|
|15. Kaoi||Meptus singhala|
|Name of existing National Park||
Area in sq.Km
|Name of Existing Sanctuaries||Area in sq.Km|
|Namdadpha National Park||1985.235 Sq.km.||Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary||861.95 Sq.km|
|Mouling National Park||483.00 "||Tale Valley Wildlife Sanctuary||337.00 "|
|Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary||217.00 "|
|Protected Forest||7.80 "||Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary||4149.00 "|
|Sessa Orchid Sanctuary||100.00 "||Kane Wildlife Sanctuary||55.00 "|
|Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary||40.30 "|
|'D' Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary||190.00"|
|Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary||281.50|
|Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary||783.00 "|
of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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