General description of the forest type: Eastern Sub-Montane Semi Evergreen Forest -2B/CI(b): This type of forest is generally found in the Sub-Himalayan Tract and lower slopes of the hills in the division. Makri Sal (Schima Wallichii),Hingori (Castanopsis indica } and Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) are dominant in this type of forest. The floristic composition is given below:
Top storey: Makri Sal (Schima Wallichii), Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) Hingori (Castanopsis indica ).Jutuli (Altingia excelsa) Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum C. strictum) Poma (Cedrela toona), Sopa (Magnolia species).Hatipoila (Pterospermum acerifolium).Borpat (Ailanthus grandis).Siris (Albizia proceni), ect.
Middle storey: Bariderdima (Dysoxlyum procerum ),Jamun (syzygium cuminii), Pichola (Kydia glabresceis ), Selleng (Sapium baccatum) Paroli (Pterospermum chelonides), Gahari Sopa (Elaeocarpus aristatus) ect.
Lower storey: Baramthuri (Talauma hodgsonii) Poreng (Olea dioica). Morhal (Vatica lanceafolia), Tejpat(cinnamomum tamala), Thekera(Garcinia species ), Vlorolia (Mallotus tetracoccus =M.albus).ect.
Ground floor: Kaupat (Phrynium irnbncatum). Ban posala (Saurauia punduana). Kolgoch (Musa species), Tora tenga (Citrus species), Bogitora (Alpina mollucensis), Bihlougoni (Pteris quadrisurita ).Dhopat tita (Clerodendrum viscosum- C. infortunatum).etc
Bamboo: Kako bans (Dendrocalarnus hamiltonii) and Bijuli bans (Bambusa pallida).
Cane: Lejai bet (Calamus floribundus ), Jati bet( Calamus tenuis)
Palm: Toko paim (Livistona jenkinsiana)
Climber: Kuchai (Acacia pennata ), panilata (Vitis planicaulis ). Ghila lata (Bauhinia vahlii), Gowalia lata (vitis lalifolia ) Dhekia lata (Dioscorea indica) etc.
Forest types: The forest under Hapoli forest Division are located in a zone of high rainfall, short dry season and relatively high average humidity. They are evergreen in nature and comprise large number of tree species occurring in varying proportions are different location. They main feature of these forests is the heterogeneous mixture of species, a clear description of which is difficult, Structurally these Forest can not be differentiated into distinct storeys. However at places especially on hills two storeys can be identified depending upon species composition. In general, The top storey is rather open composed of a mixture of evergreen, semi evergreen and deciduous species. Pure patches of bamboos are very common and are scattered all over the area. As per Champion and Seth’s revised classification of forest types of India, the forest under Hapoli Forest Division can be grouped into the following forest sub types.
1) 2B/CI(b): Eastern Sub-Montane Semi-Evergreen Forest.
2) 2B/CI/ISI: Sub-Himalayan High Alluvial Semi-Evergreen Forest.
3) 2B/2SI: Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes.
4) 13/C6: Eastern Himalayan Dry Temperate Coniferous Forests.
The forest are composed of a large number of evergreen as well as deciduous species like Hollock (Terminalia myricarpa) Jutuli (Altingia execelsa), amari (Amoora Wallichii), Tita Sopa (Michelia champaca), Gonsorai (Cinnamomum Cecieodaphane), Makrisal (Schima wallichlli),Bogipoma (Chukasia tabularis), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora), Hillika (Terminalia chebula), Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum), Bahera(Terminalia belerica), Borpat (Ailanthus grandis), Simul (Bombax ceiba), Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Urium (Bischofia javanica), Moj (Albizia lucida), Udal (Sterculia villosa), Siris (Albizia procera), Sam (Artocrapus chaplasa), etc. in the semi-evergreen forests. The proportion of evergreen species are more than that of the deciduous species mainly due to favourable climate conditions in the area. The middle storey in these forests is mainly composed of evergreen species are more than that of the deciduous speciesmainly composed of evergreen species like Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Hinguri (Castanopsis indica), Urium (Bischofia javanica), seleng (Sapium baccatum) ect. With a little misture of deciduous species like Paroli(Stereospermum chelonides), Pichola (Kydia calyia) ect.
Sub-Himalayan high alluvial Semi-Evergreen forest s 2B/CI/ISI
This type of forest is found in the Zone of Higher Himalayan in the division. Under this type of forests, evergreen species are dominant though deciduous species are also present in significant proportion and the forest is a mixture of both the species. Middle storey is prominent and consists of mixture of evergreen and deciduous species with abundantly shrubby under growth . Hoi lock (Terminalia myriocarpa) and JutuH (Altingia excelsa) are common/dominant species in this type of forest. The floristic composition is given below -
Top Storey: Hollock ( Terminalia myriocarpa), Jutuli (Altingia excelsa). Bonsum (Phoebe goalparensis), Sopa (Magnolia species). Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Dhuna (Canarium strictum =C. resiniferum), Poma (Toona citiata). Behera (Terminalia belerica), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora).
Middle Storey: Jamun (Syzygiurn cuminii), Nahar (Mesua ferrca). Banderdima (Dysoxylum procerum). Sam (Artocarpus chaplasha), Pichola (Kydia glabrescenes). Moj (Albizia lucida), Sia Nahar (kayea assamica), Selleng (Sapium baccatum), etc.
Lower Storey: Bual (Ehritia acuminate), Boromthuri (Talauma hodgsonii). Gahari sopa (Magnolia griffithii),. Bon Am (Mangilera sylvatica), Surat (Lt.portea crenulata), etc.
a) Snakes: Large number of species of snakes are found in the Division including both poisonous and non-poisonous. Important snakes found in these forests are mentioned below :-
Poisonous Snake: i) Spectacled Cobras or Common Cobras - Najanajanaja, ii) Monocled Cobra - NajanajaKaoutha, iii) King Cobra- Ophiophagus harm (Sonko chur) iv) Black Krait - Bungarusniger v) Banded Krait - Bungarus fasciatus vi) Pit vipers- Trimeresurus specie vii) Russels viper- Viperaruselli
Non-poisonous snake: i) Indian Python-Python molurus ii)Yellow ballied Forest - Rhabdophis bicelor snake iii) Common Indian black snake - Xenochorphis iv) The Whip snake v) Common Cat snake - Boigatrigonata vi) Checkered keel back - vii) Himalayan keel back - Rhapdophis himalayan viii) Rat snake - Ptyasmucosus ix) Striped keel back - Amphiesmastolate
b) Lizards: Different varieties of Lizards are found "Guisap" (Monitor Lizards) being the most common.
Fish: No fish mohal is prescribed in areas covered under this working plan as such practice is destructive for firm population. However fishing is permitted only for bonafide consumption of local people and not for commercial purpose. The fishing should not be permitted under any circumstances during breeding season (May to September).
of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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