Forest Types: The Forests under Daporijo Forest Division are located in a zone of high rainfall, short dry season and relatively high average humidity. They are evergreen in nature and comprise large number of tree species, occurring in varying proportions at different locations. The main feature of these forest is the heterogeneous mixture of species, a clear description of which is difficult .Structurally these forests can not be clearly differentiated into distinct storeys. However at place specially on hills two storey scan be identified depending upon species composition. In general, the top storey is rather open composed of a mixture of evergreen, semi evergreen and deciduous species. Pure patches of bamboos are very common and are scattered all over the area.
As per champion and seth's revised classification of forest types of India, the forest under this division can be grouped into following forest types.
1) 2B/Cl(b) : Eastern Sub- Montane Semi - Evergreen Forests.
2) 2B/C1/1S1 : Sub -Himalayan High alluvial Semi- Evergreen Forest.
3) B/2S1 : Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes.
4) 13/C6 : Eastern Himalayan Dry Temperate Conifenous Fcecas (at higher altitudes near Taksing)
The forests are composed of a large number of evergreen as well as deciduous species like Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa), Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Amari (Amoora wallichii) Tita Sopa (Michelia champaca), Gonsoroi (Cinnamomum cecieodaphanie), Makrisal (Schima wallichii), Bogipoma (Chikrasia tabularis), Khokan (Duabanga grandi flora), Hillika( Terminalia chebula), Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum), Bahera (Terminalia belerica), Borpat (alianthus grandis), Simul (Bombax ceiba), Nahar (Mesua ferrea ), Urium (Bischofia javanical, Maj (Albizia lucida), Udal (Sterculia villosa), siris (Albiziaprocera), Sam (Altocarpus chaplasa etc. in the Semi - evergreen forests. The proportion of evergreen species are more than that of the deciduous species mainly due to favourable climatic conditions in the area. The middle storey in these forests is mainly composed of evergreen species like Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Hinguri (Castanopsis indica), urium (Bischofia javanica), Selleng (Sapium baccatum) etc- with a little mixture of deciduous species like Paroli (Stero spermum chelonoides), Pichola (Kydia calycina) etc.
General description of the Forest type: -Eastern Sub- Montane Semi Evergreen forest - 2 B /Cl (b)
This type of forests is generally found in the Sub- Himalayan Tract and lower slops of the hills in various Reserve Forests of the division. Makrisal (Schima Wallichii), Hingori (Castanopsis indica) and Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) are dominant in this type of forest. The floristic composition is given below: - (i) Top Storey: Makrisal (Schima wallichii), Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Dhuna (Canarium resiniferum) Poma (Toona ciliatasyn (Cedrela toona ), Sopa (Magnolia Species), Hatipoila (Pterospermum acerifolium), Borpat (Alianthus grandis), siris ( Albizia procera) etc.(ii) Middle storey: Banderdima (Dysoxylum Procerum) Jamun (Syzygium cuminii), Pichda (Kydia Calycine) Selleng (Sapium baccetum) Paroli (Pterosperum chelonoides), Gahori sopa (Flaceocarpus aristatus).(iii) Lower Storey: Baramthuri (Talauma hodgsonii), Poreng ( Olea dioica), Morhal (Vatica laceaefroia), Tejpat( Cinnamomum tamala),Thekera(Garcinia species), Morolia (Mallotus Tetracoccus = M, albus), etc.
Ground Flora: Kaupat (Phyrynium imbricatum), Ban posala (Saraufa punduana), Kolgoch (Musa species), Tora tenga (citrus species), Bogitora (Alpinia molluccensis), Bihlougoni (Pteris quadriasurita), Bhat ( Clerodendrlam viscosum = C. inprotionatum. etc.
Bamboo: Kako bans (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) and Bijuli bans (Bambusa palida).
Cane: Lejai bet (Calamus floribundus), Jati bet (Calamus tenuis).
Palm: Toko Palm (Livistonia jinkinsiana).
Climber: Kuchai (Acacia pinnata), Panilata (vitis planicaulis), Ghila lata (Bauhinia-vahlii), Gowalia lata (Vitis latifolia), Dhekia lata (Dioscorea indica) etc.
Sub -Himalayan light alluvial Semi- Evergreen forests 2 B/ C1 /1S1.
This type of forest is found in the zone of Higher Himalayas in the division. Under this type of forests, evergreen species are dominant though deciduous species are also present in significant proportion and the forest is a mixture of both the species. Middle storey is prominent and consists of mixture of evergreen and deciduous species with abundantly shruby under growth. Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) and Jutuli (altingia excelsa) are common/dominant species in this type of forest. The floristic composition is given below :-
Top Storey: Hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa), Jutuli (Altingia excelsa), Bonsum (Phoebe goalparensis), sopa (Magnolia species), Hingori (Castanopsis indica), Dhuna (Canarium strictum=Ctesiniferum), Poma (Toona ciliatasyn Cedrela toona), Mekahi (Phoebe cooperiana), Amari (Amoora wallichii), Bohera (Terminalia belerica), Khokan (Duabanga grandiflora).
Middle Storey: Jamun (Syzygium cuminii), Nahar (Mesua ferrea), Banderdima (Dysoxylum procerum), Sam (Artocarpus chaplasha), Pichola (Kydia glabrescens), Moj (Albizia lucida),,Sia Nahar (Kayea assamica), Selleng (Apiumbaccatum)etc.
Lower Storey: Bual (Ehretia acuminate), Boromthuri (Talauma hodgsonii) Gahori Sopa (Magnolia griffithii), BonAm (Magniferea sylvatica), Surat (Laportea, crenulata) etc.
Ground Flora: Hati bhekuri (Solanum subtruncatum) Banposala (Sarauia punduana), Kaupat (Phrynium imbricatum), Tora (Alpinia alluthas), Bhat (Cleroden-drum viscosum), Kolgoch (Musa species), Bogitora (Alpinia molluccensis).
Bamboo: Kako bans (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), Bojal bans (Pseudostachyum poly-morphum).
Cane: Lejai bet (Calamus floribundus), Raidangbet (Calanis flagellum).
Palm: Toko palm (Livistonia jenkensiana, Jeng (Calamus erectus).
Climber: Ghila lata (Entada Scandens), Pani lata (Vitis planicaulis) Kuchai (Acacia pinnata), Crowlia lata (Vitis latifolia), Dimorulata (ficus scandens), Mermeri lata (Gnetum scandens) etc.
Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes 2 B/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes occur in scattered patches throughout all the tropical Evergreen forests in the various Reserve Forests of the Division. When bamboo brakes overhead trees, they form thinner clump. Where bamboo patches are pure, the clumps are and there is no possibility of regeneration of any other tree species in these bamboo . At places, shrubby and grassy under growth is found. The bamboo species found in forest are given below :-
A) Kako Bans: Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, B) Bijuli Bans: Bambusa pallida, C) Bojal Bans: Pseudostrachyumpolvmorphum, D) Bambusa tulda, E) Chimonobambusacallosa, F) Cephalostachyum capitarum, G) Dendrocalamus giganteus, H) Neohouzeahelferii.
Eastern Himalayan Dry Temperate Conierous Forst 13 /C6 This forest type is characterized by the predominance of conifers, the principal! being Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana). The pure crop of tall and elegant blue pine in various stages of growth is more or less open in nature, which has undergrowth of broad leaved i along with grasses typical of conifer forest. The top and middle storey are composed of orah blue pine, where as, the lower storey and ground vegetation are the typical coniferous associates. The floristic composition is given below :-
Top storey : Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana)
Middle storey : Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana)
Lower storey : Oaks, Rhododendrons
Ground cover : Jetelu Poka (Rubus ellipticus), Berbery (Berbersasiatica), Imperata cylindrica, etc.
This forest type is found on the northern boundary of the division near Taksing where there is enough snow falls during winter season. The area under this forest type could not be surveyed at this stage and hence is not included in this working plan.
The Reserve Forests in the division are the habitat for many wild animals. However, with increase in population living around the forests, the population of wild animals has also been affected .Encroachment into the Forest areas for habitation as well as cultivation has drastically affected wildlife. The wildlife has dwindled due to poaching and customary hunting by local tribals as well as due to increase in pressure on forests by developmental activities.
The important wildlife species found in the forest of the division are given below:-
|Sl. No.||Family||Scientific Name||English Name||Local Assamese Name|
|1||Presbytes entellus||Common langur||Hollock|
|1||Rhesus macque||Slow Loris||Lazuki Bander|
|2||carbuvires felidas||1||Panthera tigris||Tiger||Bagh|
|a) Cats||2||Panthera Pardus||Leopard||Nahar phutuki bagh|
|3||Neofelis nebulosa||Clouded leopard||--|
|4||Felish bengalensis||Leopard cat||
|5||Felish chaus||Jungle cat||--|
|b) Dogs||1||Coun alpinus||Wild dog||Ram kukur|
|2||Canis aureus||Jackal||Boudh sial|
|3||Vulpes bengalensis||Indian fox||Sial|
|c) Civets veverridae||1||Veverra zibertha||Large Indian Civet||Hapah|
|2||Viverricula indica||Small Indian Civet||Hapah|
|d) Mongoose Harpestidae||1||Herpestes edwardsi||Common mongoose||Neul|
|2||Herpestes auropunctatus||Small Indian mongoose||
|e) Other musta iidae||1||Lutra lutra||Common otter|
|a) Elephant||Elephasmiximus||Indian elephant||Hati|
|b) Cattle bovidae||Bos frontalis||Mithun||Mithun|
|c) Goats bovidae||Likely to occur at higher altitude|
Cervus unicolor Muntiacmuntjak
Barking deer Musk deer
Segoli pohu Kosturib pohu
|4||Insectivors Order pholidota||
Omnivores a) Bear
b) Boar suidae
Selenarctos thibetanus (Sloth bear is also Likely to be found) Sus scrofa
Himalayan Black Bear Indian wild pig
Rufous tailed hare
b) Various species of rat, mole & shrews c) Squirrels
Among the Squirrels the following are reported from these forests, which belong to order Rhodentia.
a) Particoloured frying Squirrel (Hylopetesalbonigar)
b) Common giant Squirrel ( Pataurista. pataurista)
c) HoarybelliedHimalayan Squirrel (Cellosciuruspygerythrus)
BIRDS: A large number of birds are found in these forests, some of which are rare and endangered.
i) Three varieties of Owls. ii) Partidges. iii) Peacock Pheasant iv) Tragopan v) Water hen vi) Night Jar vii) Different kind of Thrushes viii) Barbets ix) Wood peckers x) Babblers xi) Bluwjoy of Rollar xii) Lapwing xiii) Tragopan xiv) Pintailed Green Pigeon xv) Ashy Wood Pigeon xvi) Spekled Wood Pigeon xvii) Parakeets xviii) Kingfishers xix) Great Indian pied hornbill xx) Wreathed Hornbill xxi) Orioles xxii) Four varities of Drongoes xxiii) Robin xxiv) Wall Creeper xxv) Chlorposis xxvi) Bulbul xxvii) Sun Birds xxviii) Hill Myna xxix) Common myna xxx) Jungle Crow xxxi) Flower peckers xxxii) Wag tails xxxiii) Hoopoe xxxiv) Egret and Herons xxxv) Little cormorant xxxvi) Stroks xxxvii) Bronze winged Jacana xxxviii) Indian Coursers xxxix) Emereld dove xl) Spotted Dove xli) Koel xlii) Coucal xliii) Hawk cockoo or Brain fever bird.
a) Snakes: Large number of species of snakes are found in the Division including both poisonous and non-poisonous. Important snakes found in these forests are mentioned below :-
Poisonous Snake: i) Spectacled Cobras or Common Cobras - Najanajanaja, ii) Monocled Cobra - NajanajaKaoutha, iii) King Cobra- Ophiophagus harm (Sonko chur) iv) Black Krait - Bungarusniger v) Banded Krait - Bungarus fasciatus vi) Pit vipers- Trimeresurus specie vii) Russels viper- Viperaruselli
Non -poisonous snake: i) Indian Python-Python molurus ii)Yellow ballied Forest - Rhabdophis bicelor snake iii) Common Indian black snake - Xenochorphis iv) The Whip snake v) Common Cat snake - Boigatrigonata vi) Checkered keel back - vii) Himalayan keel back - Rhapdophis himalayan viii) Rat snake - Ptyasmucosus ix) Striped keel back - Amphiesmastolate
b) Lizards: Different varieties of Lizards are found "Guisap" (Monitor Lizards) are fruit common, Gharials are also found in the Subansiri River.
Fishes: There are large number of fresh water fish found in the perennial stream, lakes, ponds and rivers.
of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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