Climate: The Along Forest Division falls within the limit of the geographical sub-tropical region, but the area experiences tropical climate with three distinct seasons viz. Summer rains and winter due to its location. The hills and plains of varying elevations are found intermixed in the area resulting in variation of climate from place to place. The summer season is less pronounced because of the early start of the pre-monsoon rains towards the end of the winter season. The winter season lasts from the month of November to the month of March. The rainy season starts with the intermittent pre-monsoon showers in the end of March, with merge with the monsoon rains toward the end of May. With the onset of the South West monsoon the humidity increases sharply and rise in the temperature makes the weather unpleasant particularly during the month of June, July and August. The hottest period is between July and August and the coldest period falls within December and January. The fertile soil, topography and climate have made this area favorable for growth of many kind of trees Shrubs, climbers and herbs.
Temperature: The temperature and the relative humidity data of Along forest Division from 1975 to 1996 was collected from the office of the District Statistical Officer , Along and are given in the Annexure IV. The mean maximum temperature of May, June, July, August and September are 31.730 C28.090C34.90 C35.210 C and 32.880 respectively, the hottest month being August. On the other hand, the colder months are from December to February with the mean minimum temperature of 10.630 C 9.050 and 10.450 C respectively, the coldest month being January.
Rain fall: The rainfall in the region is governed by both the southwest and northeast monsoon. The south west monsoon operates from May/June to September/ October and is responsible for more than three fourth of the total annual rainfall. The northeast monsoon accounts for the balance rainfall during the months from November to April. The details of the mean rainfall data of Along, Basar, Liromoba, Genssi, Turing, Monigong, Gelling, Kaying and Likabali are given in the tables in Annesure-5. The maximum amount of precipitation has being recorded in the month of July (520.80 mm) and the minimum being recorded in the month of December (Nill) during 1996. It is interesting to not that there is not a single dry month in the Division. Out of the different places in Along Division. Tuting appears to get the minimum mean annual precipitation (around 4.000mm.) and monigaon getting the minimum mean annual precipitation while Along, Basar, Liromoba, Likabali, Gelling, Keying and Gensi fall in intermediate high rainfall zone.
Wind: Winds are generally of low intensity during the South West monsoon season. During the rest of the year winds are generally moderate, which usually flow towards plains in the night and towards the hills during the day time.
Orchids: The following orchids occur in the Reserve Forests which are of very high value. Some of the endangered Orchids e.g. Coelogyne barbata, Galeola falconeri, Paphiopedilum fairieamurn, etc are also found in the Reserve Forests .These orchids need preservation as well as protection to avoid extinction of these species within a short span of time.
List of Orchids found in Arunachal Pradesh:
|1||Acampe papillosa||23||B. penicillium||45||Cymbidium aloifolium||67||E. fragrans|
|2||A.rigida||24||Culanthe el aval a||46||C. mitnronianum||68||E. striata|
|3||Acanthophippium sylheinse||25||C. biloha||47||Dendrobium acinacijorme||69||E. graminifolia|
|4||Aerides mulliflorum||26||C. densiflora||48||D. aphyllum||70||E. spicala|
|5||A williamsii||27||Ceratostylis teres||49||D. caieartii||71||Gastrochil us calceolaris|
|6||Agrostophyllum brevipes||28||Chiloschista lumfera||50||D. cumalatum||72||G. dasypogon|
|7||Arundina graminifolia||29||Cleisocentrom triehromum||51||D. pimbiatum var, Oculaium||73||Galeo la fulconeri|
|8||Anthogonium gracile||30||Cleisostoma receniforum||52||D. densiflorum||74||Geodorum purpureitm|
|9||Arachnis clarkii||31||Cleisosioma filiforae||53||D. falconeri||75||Goodyer procera|
|10||Beirmannia bimaculaia||32||Coelogyne flavida||54||D. hookerianum||76||Kingigidium deliciesum|
|11||Bulhophyllum capillipes||33||C. barbata||55||D.jonkensii||77||Lipans duthiei|
|12||B. delitencens||34||C flaccula||56||D. pendulum||78||L. planlaginea|
|13||B. hirtum||35||C. grifflthii||57||Epigeneiwn amplum||79||Luisia lereiifolia|
|14||B sikkimense||36||C. nitida||58||Cryotochilus sanguinea||80||L. filiformis|
|15||B. leopardinum||37||C. prolif era||59||Diplomeris hirsute||81||Malaxis laifolia|
|16||B. acudum||38||C. schullesii||60||Eria acervata||82||Micropera mannii|
|17||Nervulia frammieana||39||Pleione praccex||61||Paphiopedilum fairieanum||83||Unsifera obtusifolia|
|18||Operonia maxima||40||Renenthera indica||62||Otochyllum fusca||84||Papilionthe teres|
|19||Oeacaulis||41||Thelasis Longfolia||63||Ornithochilus difformis||85||Vanda alpine|
|20||Phalaenopsis parishii||42||Pterocera guavcolens||64||Rhyncostylis retusa||86||Phaius flavus|
|21||P. tankervilliae||43||Trixperum pygmaeum||65||Pholidoda articulate||87||Tylostylis discolor|
|22||Pomatocalpa armigerum||44||Vanda coerulescens||66||Phreatia flegans||88||Zeuxine strateumatica|
Regeneration status: The natural regeneration in these forests is generally poor and at places absent, except for some well stocked or medium stocked forest where natural regeneration has been found in varying degrees. The Rangge and Maru Jam Reserve Forests have not been operated for harvesting of timber and other major forest produce, in the past where occurrence of mature crop of trees inhibits young regeneration.
Injuries to which crop is liable: The climatic and edaptic factors prevailing in this region are in general conducive to the growth or forests and therefore these forests are less susceptible to various detrimental effects and injuries.
a) Fire: Occasional in Pine Forest in higher elevation. Other broad leave forests are not much affected.
b) Wind and storm: Infrequent but does considerable damage in generally pre-monsoon season.
c) Frost: Not much damage hits been observed in the forests.
d) Climbers: Climbers are detrimental to these forests and cause considerable damage to the forests. The damage caused to the standing crop by climber and lianas such as Aittcia pinncitu. Bciuhini vuhlii. Spaih< roxbvrghii. Vitix latifoiia, Ficus candem. Mikcnu-etc is considerably high.
e) Erosion: Riverbank erosion, land slides etc. cause considerable damage to ins crops.
f) Animals: Grazing by wild animals has not caused any serious damage to these forests though elephant cause some damage to young crop. Damage to crop by other animal is negligible.
g) Grazing: The incidence of grazing by the domestic cattle's in the forest and plantation areas are seen in and around the habitation.
h) Insects: No incidence of insect damage has been noticed in the natural crop. However in Gamari and leak plantation damage caused by the defoliators has been noticed.
i) Weeds: Weeds are heavy in the new plantation areas and have to be kept under control by frequent weedings.
j) Epiphytes: The most common Ficus species found in the forest are: Lorunthux ampullaceous Finis mysorensis.& Fallissima.eltisticu,Ficus reinsa which can cause damage to host trees.
k) Fungus: The fungi in general do not cause any major damage the forests.
l) Drought: Since the area receives sufficient and well distribute rainfall through-cut the year, the area is not subjected to drought.
m) Man: Man is the most influential agency that affects natural forests and causes major damage to forests. The destruction of forest by the man in the form of encroachment, Jhuming, Illegal felling of trees and causing forest fires etc. are main reasons for decrease in forest cover near habitation, villages, etc.
n) Wildlife: The damage to the forests by wild animals is not sufficient, though wild elephants may some times cause damage to the plantation.
Wild Life: The Division is rich in biodiversity. In the past wild animals were in abundance in the region. But of late with the increase in human population forests have been put under trernendous pressure for various developmental works. The wildlife has dwindled due to the customary hunting by local tribals. However the Division still has fairly large number of wildlife compared to adjoining Assam.
The important wildlife species found in the forests of the Division is given below:
|Sl. No.||Family||Scientific Name||English Name||Local Assamese Name|
|1||Presbytes entellus||Common langur||Hollou|
|2||Macaca assamensis||Assam macaque||Bander|
|3||Rhesus macaque||Macaca mulata||Bander|
|1||Nycticebus coucang||Slow Loris||Lazuki Bander|
|2||carnivores felidas||1||Panthera tigris||Tiger||Bagh|
|2||Panthera Pardus||Leopard||Nahar phutuki bagh|
|3||Neofelis nebulosa||Clouded leopard||--|
|4||Felis bengalensis||Leopard cat||
|5||Felish chaus||Jungle cat||--|
|b) Dogs||1||Coun alpinus||Wild dog||Ram kukur|
|2||Canis aureus||Jackal||Boudh sial|
|3||Vulpes bengalensis||Indian fox||Sial|
|c) Civets veverridae||1||Veverra zibertha||Large Indian Civet||Hapah|
|2||Viverricula indica||Small Indian Civet||Hapah|
|d) Mongoose Harpestidae||1||Herpestes edwardsi||Common mongoose||Neul|
|2||Herpestes auropunctatus||Small Indian mongoose||
|e) Other mustaiidae||1||Lutra lutra||Common otter|
List of Endangered Wildlife of Arunachal Pradesh:
(i) Endangered Flora: 1. Magnolia griffithii HK. f. & Th.. 2. M. gustavi King 3. Maglietia insignis BI. 4. Dicentra roylei HK.F.& Th. 5. Saurauia griffithii 6. Ilex embeloides HK.F 7. I.. Venul.osa H.K.f 8. Euonymus bullatus wall cx Lindl. 9. Phanera Khasiana (Baker) Thoth. 10. Merrilliopanax cordifolia Sastry 11. Mydelia mukherjiana. 12. Nertera sinensis Homsi. 13. Leptodermis scabrida 14. Rhododendron concinnoidea Hutch. Et. Ward. 15. R. nuttallii Booth 16. R. santapaui Sastry et al. 17. R. subansiriense Chamberlin 18. Alniphyllum fortunei (Hemsi) Makino 19. Haodendron biaristatum (Sm.) Rehder. 20. Pauia belladonna Deb et Detta. 21. Galeola nudifolia Lour. 22. Christnensenia aesculifolia (BI) Maxon 23. Agapetea subansirica G.D. Pal 24. Sapria himalayana Griff. 25. Primula subansirica G.D. Pal 26. Ophiorrhiza talevallensis G.D. Pal 27. Aconogonum pangianum G.D. Pal 28. Acanthephi sychetense Lind I 29. Coptis teeta Linn.
Source: Botanical Survey of India, Itanagar (ref.vide No. BST/ASS/1194-Tech/883 dt, 14-12-94)
(ii) Endangered fauna
|1.||Hylobates hoolock (Harlan)||Hoolock Gibbon|
|2.||Helarctos malayanus (Raffles)||Malayan Sun Bear|
|3.||Urnus arctos isabellinus (Horslleld)||Himalayan Brown Bear|
|4.||Ailurus fulgens (Cuvier)||Red Panda|
|5.||Arctictis binturong (Raffles)||Binturong|
|6.||Priondon pardicolor (Hodgson)||Spotted Linsang|
|7.||Felis marmorata (Martin)||Marbled Cat|
|8.||Felis temmincki (Vigors & Horsfield)||Golden Cat|
|9.||Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith)||Clouded Leopard|
|10.||Moschus ohrysogaster (Hodgson)||Himalayan Musk Deer|
|1.||Ciconia ciconia boyciana (Swinhoe)||Eastern White Stock|
|2.||Platalea leucorodia major (Temminck & Schlege)||White Spoon bill|
|3.||Falco biammicus (Temminck)||Lagger Falcon|
|4.||Tragopan temmincki (J.E. Gray)||Temminck's Tragopan|
|5.||Crossoptilon crossoptilon harmani (Elwes)||Elwes's Eared Pheasant|
|6.||Lophophorus soletari (Jardon)||Sclater's or Mishmi|
|7.||Eupodotis bengalensis (Gmelin)||Bengal Florican|
|8.||Buceros bicornis homrai (Hodgson)||Great Pied Hornbill|
|1.||Crocodylus palustris (Lesson)||Marsh Crocodile/Mugger|
|2.||Varanus bengalensis (Daudin)||Common Indian Monitor|
|3.||Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke & Gray)||Yellow Monitor|
|4.||Python molurus (Linnaeus)||India Rock Python|
|5.||Python reticulates (Schneider)||Reticulated Python.|
1. Tylototriton verrucosus (Anderson) Himalayan Newt.
Source : Zoological Survey of India (Ref. Vide kr. Mo. F.4-2/94-Tech/788 did. 14.12.94.)
of Forests & Environment, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
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